Children's clothes are a relatively recent invention. From the rudimentary beginnings of clothing all the way to the nineteenth century, children wore miniature versions of adult costumes. There were a few minor exceptions. Children's clothes often had leading strings sewn in them so the child could be tethered out of harm's way, but the costume itself was still a small copy. Early in the 1800s, fashions for both adults and children became lighter in weight and freer of restrictions. Several popular styles were developed just for children, notably the sailor's suit and the hussar's or Eton jacket. Babies probably had more clothing challenges than any other group. They wore many layers, some of them wool (due to the parents' general fear of colds), two caps were worn with a set for daywear and another for nighttime, and babies even wore corsets or stomach bands. Infants wore long clothes until they were eight months old when the need to crawl and walk made shorter garments more practical. Boys as well as girls wore skirts well past babyhood.
In the United States, a wide range of social changes impacted children's clothes. The sewing machine (both home and factory varieties) eased the burden of sewing clothes for the family, and, by the Civil War, paper patterns were readily available for children's clothes. The Civil War itself changed children's garments because standard sizes of uniforms were made for soldiers. Soon, all clothing was sized, and styles for children began to differ because of size ranges. Transportation methods diversified and necessitated new clothing styles. Sports clothes were developed with train travel in mind, and tailored suits for girls and box coats for boys were made specifically for travel. The bicycle and the baby carriage were both popular by mid-century, and clothes for children to wear while riding were created. Dolls and paper dolls became popular toys, and, as the shape of the "baby doll" changed from a diminutive grown-up to a more baby-like shape, costumes for both real babies and their toy counterparts were modified to suit baby's needs. Bonnets as absolutes for American girls also dropped out of fashion when the Civil War eliminated cotton production.
By the 1870s, styles had again become very restrictive. Young girls wore laced and boned corsets to shape their waists from an early age even though doctors had become aware of the damage caused to growing bones, circulation, and breathing. Children also wore mourning clothes complete with veils. Girls being sent to boarding school had all the accoutrements of their mothers including fans, stockings, pantaloons, bustles, and feathered hats. Starched clothing appeared neater and cleaner, so shirts and dresses were stiff to the point of discomfort. Changes were beginning to occur rapidly in clothing manufacture, however, as the long centuries of handmade clothes gave way to factory-made garments. Those factory-made garments were also available to any-one with a mail-order catalog.
By 1900, fashion began to be a true cultural mirror that reflected war, depression, revolution, the emancipation of women, the evaporation of class distinctions, and the growth of cities and decline of agriculture. Bicycle-riding clothes were extended to girls who wore Turkish trousers. Overalls were initially advertised as bike-riding attire and soon became work clothes for adults; for children, they were called Brownie suits and they revolutionized playwear. The pullover sweater was also created about this time, and open-necked pullovers, turtlenecks, sweaters, and cardigans soon followed for all ages.
The changing status of women altered the clothing worn by their children. Women had begun to work outside the home and had less time to make their children's clothing. Children's activities were more liberated, so a wider variety of clothing for play and school was needed. Concern for children's comfort grew as well, so soft and loose nightclothes were just as important as tough-wearing jeans. These clothes had to be easy to clean and durable because mother's time was limited.
Surprising developments influenced clothing. Rubber allowed the development of elastic waistbands so young boys could wear trousers instead of skirts. Underwear became more secure and less restrictive, and mother and child saved time when the child could easily pull on clothes rather than waiting for mother and the button hook. Tennis shoes with rubber soles became classic casual wear for this century. Synthetics resulted in wrinkle-resistant clothes, weatherproof garments for outdoors, and soft-spun underclothes. Furthermore, factory-made clothes became less expensive, so a wider wardrobe was opened to children as well as adults. Designs for today's children's clothes are motivated by factors such as ease of laundering, designer-name labels (sometimes worn on the outside of clothes), safety including fire-retardant sleepwear, popularity of TV and sports characters, and adjustability.